Dear thoughts are in my mind, and my soul soars enchanted
As I hear the sweet lark sing in the clear air of the day
For a tender beaming smile to my hope has been granted,
And tomorrow she shall hear all my fond heart would say.
I shall tell her all my love, all my soul's adoration,
And I think she will hear and will not say me nay.
It is this that gives my soul all its joyous elation,
As I hear the sweet lark sing in the clear air of the day.
Sir Samuel Ferguson (1810-1886) Phyllis Tate (1911-1987)
I will try a sample page of this section. One day I put my children's name arranged from youngerst one. Lydia, Alice, and Richard Kang. When I put all the first characters together I came up with LARK. So I have decided that it should be my family's nick name. I then started looking for the beautiful song I remember when I sang as a elementary student. I have not found the song yet. But I found following song, one that is close to what I remember. Did you know that in Korea we say"the bird crys" and in the west we say"the bird sings". This is stark difference in the sentiment of perception of the nature.
We do appreciate this bird. We call skylark as an artist or singer for her beautiful singing. Then, I found there are so many kinds of larks and there are number of larks that are used as state birds in US. We do love this bird, skylark(종다리)
탐조 (birding, bird watching)는 서휴열의 열정적 취미 입니다. 그래서 이 친구는 거이 전문가가 되었습니다. 아니 아주 전문가가 된 것으로 알고 있습니다. 원하건대, 휴열형이 탐조세계를 여기에 소계하여 우리도 그 즐거움을 맛보게 하여 주었으면 하고 바랍니다. 새이야기, 새보는 취미, 등등 말입니다. 그사이라도 몇개의 탐조 사이트 와 새소리를 즐기 십시요. www.naturesound.com 에 들어 가셔서 새이름을 크릭 하신 다음 아래 스피카 바턴을 크릭 하십시요. 아래는 종다리에 관한 일화와 노래 하나를 예로서 올렸습니다. (주의: REAL AUDIO PLAYER를 다우로드 하실때 조심하셔서 무로보급판 (Free edition)을 고르십시요. 유료를 쓸 이유가 별로 없읍니다.)
제가 이 사이트를 이용할 예를 한번 만들어 보았습니다. 우리 아이들의 이름을 열거 하여 보았습니다. Laydia, Alice, Richard 그리고 성 Kang. 그 첮자를 열거하니 LARK가 되었습니다.
Lark는 물론 종달새 입니다. 종달새 는 그 노래소리 가 아름 답습니다. 우리나라에서는 새가 운다고 하는대 서양에서는 새가 노래한다고 하는 것 같에요. 국민 학교때 들었든 노내가 생각이 나서 그것을 찾았는대 나타나지 않는 군요. 이렇게 시작 합니다.
오호 종달이 (노래불러라)
너혼자서 무엇을 노래해
하늘의 은혜 땅위의 영광....
그이상 기억이 나지 않습니다.
봄의 종달이 노래가 아름 다워서 수 많은 시인들이 글을 쓰고 노래도 참 많이 나온 것으로 알고 있습니다. 종달이는 성악가 혹은 예술가라는 별명을 갖고 잊읍니다. 알만한 말씀이죠. 또 종달이가 미국의 몇몇주의 주대표새( state bird)로서 정해져 있는 것으로 알고 있습니다. 그중에 sky lark를 특히 종달이 라고 하는 가요? 아래 사이트를 방문 해보새요.
Early in the mornig every spring, we wake up to a symphony of the nature, particularly of avian creatures which just made long journey from the south. We may even realize that some can sing a duet by itself. It turns out that the source of the vocalization is " the syrinx" equevalent of the larynx, with 100 % efficiency in producing vocalization as opposed to 2-3 % efficiency in human. (% of the air passing through the organ is used to make sound). The syrinx is an elaborate tympaniform membranous organ between trachea and two bronchi, through which the air pass through.
The range of avian vocalization runs a gamut of extremes, from non vocal, such as mute swan, turkey vulture to robust, incessant talkers, singers,
such as parrots, mockingbirds, and skylarks.
Enjoy when we can listen and can't help but to have spirit lifted.
We almost lost such a gift of the nature becasue of chemical pollution a few decades ago.
새가 어떻게 노래하나
해마다 봄날 아침이면 우리는 자연의 교향곡을 즐기며 새날을 맞습니다. 특히 우리는 멀리 남쪽에서 갖 올라온 날짐성 아니 귀여운 새들의 노래소리 말입니다.
우리는 가끔 한마리의 새가 이중창 (뚜엣)을 하는 것을 들었을 것입니다. 새소리는 시링스라는 새의 독특한 울대에서 나온다고 합니다. 이는 인간의 후두(목청)에 해당되는 것입니다. 인간이 말하거나 노래를 할때는 그 기관을 2 내지 3 퍼샌트 밖에 쓰지 않는대 비하여 새들은 이 기관을 백퍼샌트 쓴다고 합니다. 이 새의 시링스는 자상하고 미묘하게 구성된 고막같은 얇은 막으로 구성된 기관입니다. 이 것이 바람이 지나갈때 새의 노래소리가 납니다. 새소리의 범위는 극단적이라고 합니다. 그의 무성의 백조에서 무지하게 시꺼러운 칠면조 나 소래기 같이 한없이 고함을 지르는 것들이 있는가 하면 늘 조잘거리고 노래하기 좋아하는 앵무새, 입내새, 와 종달이 들이 있습니다. 우리가 즐길수 있을때 새의 노래를 즐기세요. 아마 우리의 감정이 북돋아질 것입니다.
우리는 이런 자연의 선물을 환경의 오염으로 놓질뻔 하였습니다.
We just witnessed, in eastern half of the continent, amazing natural phenomenon of 17 year periodical cicades. They erupted from ground ,
exploded in unison with mating song. They spend all of their energy for love making, spent and disappear with their mission accomplished,
leaving us long for another 17 years to hear them again.
Avian creatures exploit flight for the same mission. In every spring, birders all over get excited to greet migrating birds in shores, woodlands, and sky. The Arctic tern is a long distance champion, flying 10,000 miles per one way, from antactica to almost to northern pole for nesting . Some hummingbird species fly over 600 miles across gulf coast from mexico. Over one million shorebirds stop on the shores of the Delaware Bay each May timed to feed on horseshore crab eggs. They fly non stop from their wintering grounds in the tip of south america, as far as 4000 miles away. The trip may take as long as 90 hours.
They eat as many as 9,000 eggs of horseshoe crab per day, non stop for 2 weeks,126,000 eggs! in 2 weeks and fly 2,000 miles to their arctic breeding ground. A red knot that weighs 4 oz on arrival may leave a half pound heavier. Horseshoe crabs arrive on the beaches to lay eggs. each female may lay as many as 88,000 eggs in a season, billions available
for feast for birds. For those 3-4 weeks, the Delaware beaches are teeming with love of the horshoe crabs who provide energy for migrating shore birds who are on their way to their destination for their love.
It is awe inspiring cycle of the nature and impossible not to feel mutual connection of the existence.
Hwiyol June 1, 2004
최근 미국의 동부지방 에서는 17년 주기 매미의 갑작스런 출현으로 오묘한 자연 현상을 목격했다. 그들이 긴 세월동안의 동면에서 깨어나 한꺼번에 폭발적으로 나타나 사랑의 노래를 동시에 부르며 정열을 태우며 임무를 마치고 사라저 버린다. 이런 현상을 다시 목격하려면 다시 17년을 기다려야 한다.
새 들은 철에 따라 날아 다니며 같은 임무를 수행한다. 해 마다 봄이 되면 새 보는 이 들로 하여금 흥분케 하는 사건들이 있는데 이것은 철 새 들의 대 이동이다. 하늘에서, 산천에서, 해변가에서 볼수 있는 장관이다. 그 중에 장거리 선수로는 The Arctic tern 있는데 지구의 남 북 극을 철에 따라 왕복 2000 마일을 나른다. 무게가 4 그람도 되지 않는 어떤 벌새 (humming bird)는 멕시코 에서 걸프만늬 600 마일을 쉬지 않고 날르는 경이를 보여 준다. 해 마다 5월이 되면 백만 마리가 넘는 shore birds 는 horseshoe crabs가 산란 하는 시기에 맞추어 남미에서 쉬지 않고 4000 마일을 날라와 Delaware Bay 에 도착, 삼 주 동안 지내면서 배를 채우고 기름기를 불려 다음의 사랑의 보금자리로 날라갈 준비를 한다. 이 새 들은 하루에 9000 개의 알을 먹어 치우니 2 주일이면 126,000 개의 알을 먹는 셈 이다. Horseshoe crabs 의 산란이 끝나면 이 새 들은 다시 2000 마일을 날라 북 쪽으로 이동한다. Red knot 이란 새는 도착 할때는 앙상한 4 oz 였지만, 2 주 후에는 갑절이 되는 8 oz 가 되어 북쪽으로 날라가 보금자리를 이룬다. Horseshoe crabs 도 해 마다 같은 시기에 해변에 나타나서 암 놈이 배란하는데 한 마리가 한 계절에 88,000 개의 알을 까는것으로 알려저 있다. 암 놈이 배란하면 숫 놈이 나타나 본연의 일을 끝내고 암놈의 등에 붙어 바다속으로 들어 가는 사랑의 표현은 장관이다. 3 - 4 주간 Delaware Bay 는 수 백만의 horseshoe crabs, shore birds, 수 십억의 알 들이 즐변하는 사랑의 해변을 목격하게 된다.
이런 자연의 오묘한 현상을 보느라면 한 조물주의 숨결을 느끼며 우리 모두 서로 연결 되어 있음을 실감하지 않을수 없다.
서 휘열 Mrs. 서휘열 번역
Bird brain - 1
In a university campus in Hokaido, Japan, carrion crows are observed to line up patiently for the traffic to halt and place walnuts which they picked up from adjoining trees and place them in front of cars when the lights change red. The craws are taking advantage of car traffics to open walnuts. The craws in Japan have only been cracking nuts this way since about 1990. The craws are known to drop clams from a height on the seashore to break them open.
The legion has it that, Greek dramatist Aeschylus, (525-456)* is said to have met his end when an eagle is mistaken his bald spate for a stone and dropped tortoise onto it.
We tease about “ bird brain” not being too bright but some birds may make us pause to think about the meaning of birdbrain.
Birds have proportionally larger brain than any other vertebrates except mammals.
The cerebellum is well developed but the cerebrum is relatively smooth in surface, smaller than mammals. From human point of view, cerebral cortex without peaks, valleys may appear less sophisticated, or capable of intelligence. There are great variation in sizes of brain among families and its relation to parts related to each bird’s way of survival. The olfactory lobes are relatively small and the optic lobes are large, in parallel with the poorly developed sense of smells and the sharp eyesight in most birds.
The survivals of species depend on its ability for adaptation and presumably intelligence to learn. Avian species has been around successively since Jurassic period, a testament to adaptability and presumably intelligence.
Some birds show quite remarkable powers of recall. The Clarke’s nutcracker (p.312, nat.geo.birds), quite commonly seen if happen to be in national parks in Rocky Mt. area, may collects up to 30,000 pine seeds over 3 weeks in November and then carefully buries them for safe keeping over an area of 200 square miles. Over the next 8 months, it succeeds in retrieving over 90 % of them, even when they are covered in snow. It is reported that they outscored in their memory power over graduate students, certainly well above my memory.
Other birds have been seen using, designing tools to retrieve foods.
The avian brain seems most highly developed in the crow family, the crows, raven, jays and magpies.
I wouldn’t be offended to be referred to ‘ bird brain’ and my life during first year of medical school would have been less painful, and prof. Rha might not have looked so formidable if I had the brainpower of the Clarke’s nutcracker.
the earliest writer of Greek tragic drama whose works survive.
A seer predicted that he would die when a house fell on him, so he departed for the hillsides, well away from any dwellings to be safe but he met his fate when an eagle saw his bald spate. Perhaps, we may not evade our fate in anyway.
Bird brain, continued
the avian brain seems most highly developed in the corvids,( P. 312 OF NAT. GEO FIELD GUIDE) smart birds, including the crows, raven, jays and magpies and naturally their behaviours have been observed for studies.
The bird brain , considerably advanced in evolution over the other vertebrates, is relatively smooth, shallow in sulci but cerebellum is well developed.
The role of cerebral cortex in mammals is largely replaced by Ahyperstriatum@ , whose size seem to be in proportion with learning abilities and hypocampus seem to play in storing memory as in mammals.
Alex, the famous african gray parrot, ordinary one bought in a Chicago pet store in 1977 by prof. Irene Pepperberg of the University of Arizona in Tucson, made his name known for his ability to count. He can tell shapes, identify the letters, K,N,I,T,S and distingiush metal from wood. His ability exceeds that of other mammals.
In england, the tits are observed to open the tops of glass milk bottles left on peoples=s doorsteps.
The fact that birds evolved and thrived over 50 to 60 million years indicate remarkable ability to adapt to the change in environment and intelligence is often foundation of learning ability.
The birds learn in various ways, by habituation and imprinting. By habituation, birds learn what to fear and not to fear. Recent report of mallard duck (p. 76 of NAT. GEO FIELD GUIDE) nesting comfortably in treasury building in washington, . D.C. ) shows the loss of fear of men.
Imprinting is confined to early life stage of bird=s life when the young birds soon after hatching follow the objects=s behaviour charactereristics whether the object is the parent, a man, or some other moving objects. By taking advantage of those innate ability, whooping cranes, heavenly creature ( p. 150 of NAT.GEO FIELD GUIDE) are trained to follow ultralight palne soon after artificial hatching in Wisconsin) to fly to winter resting place, Three lakes, in Florida .
Tool making behaviour in nature, such as picking up a twig, trim it to size , to pry open bark to snatch insects, is frequently reported among crows family. Some of behaviour , not essential to survival, has been taught by people who enjoy company of birds.
Jack the jackdaw ( p. 318 of NAT. GEO FIELD GUIDE), raised by the wild life film director, John Dawner can hit preset dial button and loudspeaker button. Once he was observed to be squawking down on telephone to a local travel agent. Most of learning beahviour seem related to what might be called software behaviour based on capability of hard ware. Many birds sing local dialect, show variation in food , visiting the same bird feeders next year. They can communicate information for common goods and enlist hundred of their kind to assault an enemy.
We share so much nature with birds and easy to project ourselves into their behaviour. One must be careful to call any one bird brain and I wouldn not be offended to be called one.
We all remember that the newly wed receive pillows, graced with mandarin duck -원 앙 -( p. 96, nat. geo Birds) embroidered as wedding gift in Korea. Apparent togetherness of birds inspired writers, poets, romantics to conjure faithfulness in bonding. It is common to watch a pair of mourning doves (p. 236, nat.geo. Birds) on utility line, flying in and out together. In spring, we appreciate males of full, breeding plumage is paired with duller looking females, cruising, swimming, in the sky or water, in concert. They seem blissful in bonding.
Copulation,” cloacal kiss” follows pair bonding. You might have seen X-rated behaviour of birds in utility line, where the males mount the female, pressing his cloaca ( anal opening) against that of the female.
Mating is one of fundamental behavior for survival of individual and serious matter, employed universally by every living being, easily identifiable with us, homo sapiens. Indeed, 90% of birds are considered monogamous, more than any other mammals. Birds experience more difficult tasks to produce and raise children. They are highly mobile but have to lay eggs, hatch, nurture, protect them from predation and natural enemies ,away from normal residence. They can't carry the young as many mammals do for protection and they migrate far away, thousand miles away, to breeding ground to raise them. No wonder that they need heavt prental investment for progeny. The pair bond between birds is stronger, lasts longer. Wood carving of Canada geese (p. 72, nat. geo. Birds) are often used as a gift for wedding in the U.S. as a symbol of fidelity.
Pairs of parrots, albatrosses (p.30, nat.geo. Bird), eagles, geese and pigeons are considered life long in bonding or for several successive years. Others such as a house wren( p. 334, nat. geo. Birds), hole nesting birds may stay together only for one brood. The pairing of hummingbird may be promiscuous, lasting only a few hours ( they copulate in the airs).
There are many exceptions. Depending on the circumstance, it can be short a tem affair to last only during breeding seasons. Among Mute swans ( p.66, nat. geo. Birds), roughly 5% of breeding pairs and 10% of non breeding pairs separate each year. Generally, long distance flying sea birds ( albatrosses, petrels, fulmars) tend to stay together longer.
Other than obvious reason for survival, other reasons are offered for the pair bonding, such as personal, territorial familiarity to each others. Some sort of human like affection has been supposed as romantics are delighted to believe. It is sad to read incidences where surviving mate stand guard for dead or injured mate as episodically reported. Maybe it’s not all sex but affection was also involved in mating of birds.
Good looks, booming voices, masculine behaviors are used to entice mates. The male Song Sparrow (p. 414, nat. geo. Birds) will take no chance that the female fail to notice him with his insistent singing( we, Korean, called bird singing “ crying”).
Many species change their appearance after successful mating, no longer in need of wasting energy to show off. Male Mallard, brilliantly colored during mating season molt during the summer, losing all of flight feathers and cannot fly.
Apparently, inbreeding is rare in most species in the wild even if the young may return to the same home site of a previous year. Homosexual behavior in the wild has been noted in some species. Any variation in mating behaviors that happen in homo sappiens does happen in birds. We are not far off from each other in mating behavior but still unclear about their love affair.